Guidelines for Detection and Management of Malnutrition



Purpose: The ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’ (‘MUST’) has been designed to help identify adults who are underweight and at risk of malnutrition,
as well as those who are obese. It has not been designed to detect deficiencies in or excessive intakes of vitamins and minerals.

Definition of malnutrition: There is no universally accepted definition of malnutrition but the following is increasingly being used:
Malnutrition is a state of nutrition in which a deficiency or excess (or imbalance) of energy, protein, and other nutrients causes measurable adverse effects on tissue/body form (body shape, size and composition) and function, and clinical outcome.

Although the term malnutrition can refer to both under and overnutrition it is used here to refer to undernutrition. A BMI >30kg/m2 is used to indicate very overweight (obese) individuals.

Malnutrition and public health: It has been estimated that at any one time more than 3 million people in the UK are at risk of malnutrition2 and, yet it continues to be an under-recognised and under-treated problem. Furthermore, the public health expenditure on disease-related malnutrition in the UK in 2007 was calculated to be in excess of £13 billion per annum, about 80% of which was in England2. This is a heavy burden and cost to bear not only for individuals, but for health and social care services, and society as a whole.

Information NutriBib

Reference work for leading, current and selected literature in the field of clinical nutrition

Publications on clinical nutrition have grown steadily in recent years and the scientific evidence has been improved by numerous observational as well as intervention studies. Various umbrella organisations, such as the Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (GESKES), the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) or the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) publish guidelines on nutrition in various clinical situations at regular intervals. Thus, a large amount of literature is available for evidence-based nutritional medicine.

The NutriBib aims to filter out authoritative publications in the various fields of nutritional medicine and thus to provide an overview of the abundance of literature. A large number of experienced nutrition experts contributed to the selection of relevant sources and allow a broadly based selection. Nevertheless, the literature selection cannot be considered exhaustive. Specific literature can be found by entering search words (using the magnifying glass at the top right) or by searching the table of contents.

Is important literature still missing? We would be very pleased to hear from you:

List of abbreviations

DGEM German Society for Nutritional Medicine (German Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährungsmedizin)
GESKES  Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (German Gesellschaft für klinische Ernährung der Schweiz) 
ESPEN European Society of Clinicl Nutrition and Metabolism