Basics in Clinical Nutrition: Trace Elements and Vitamins in Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

e-SPEN, the European e-Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. 2008 Dec 1; 3(6):E293-E297. doi: 10.1016/j.eclnm.2008.07.011. Epub 2008 Aug 19.
Shenkin, A.


The provision of an adequate amount of trace elements and vitamins is an integral part of all nutrition support regimens by both parenteral and enteral routes.

Learning objectives

  • To list the micronutrients which need to be supplied to patients receiving artificial nutrition.
  • To understand the reasons why patients receiving artificial nutrition may have increased requirements.

Information NutriBib

Reference work for leading, current and selected literature in the field of clinical nutrition

Publications on clinical nutrition have grown steadily in recent years and the scientific evidence has been improved by numerous observational as well as intervention studies. Various umbrella organisations, such as the Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (GESKES), the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) or the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) publish guidelines on nutrition in various clinical situations at regular intervals. Thus, a large amount of literature is available for evidence-based nutritional medicine.

The NutriBib aims to filter out authoritative publications in the various fields of nutritional medicine and thus to provide an overview of the abundance of literature. A large number of experienced nutrition experts contributed to the selection of relevant sources and allow a broadly based selection. Nevertheless, the literature selection cannot be considered exhaustive. Specific literature can be found by entering search words (using the magnifying glass at the top right) or by searching the table of contents.

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List of abbreviations

DGEM German Society for Nutritional Medicine (German Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährungsmedizin)
GESKES  Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (German Gesellschaft für klinische Ernährung der Schweiz) 
ESPEN European Society of Clinicl Nutrition and Metabolism