Micronutrient Deficiencies in Medical and Surgical Inpatients

Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019 Jun 28; 8(7):931. doi: 10.3390/jcm8070931.
Berger, M. M., Pantet, O., Schneider, A., & Ben-Hamouda, N.


Inpatients are threatened by global malnutrition, but also by specific micronutrient (i.e., trace element and vitamins) deficiencies that frequently are overseen in the differential diagnosis of major organ dysfunctions. Some of them are related to specific geographic risks (iodine, iron, selenium, zinc, vitamin A), while others are pathology related, and finally many are associated with specific feeding patterns, including low dose enteral feeding. Among the pathologies in which laboratory blood investigations should include a micronutrient outwork, anemia is in the front line, followed by obesity with bariatric surgery, chronic liver disease, kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cardiomyopathies and heart failure. The micronutrients at the highest risk are iron, zinc, thiamine, vitamin B12 and vitamin C. Admission to hospital has been linked with an additional risk of malnutrition-feeding below 1500 kcal/day was frequent and has been associated with a structural additional risk of insufficient micronutrient intake to cover basal needs. Although not evidence based, systematic administration of liberal thiamine doses upon admission, and daily complementation of inpatients' food and enteral feeding solutions with multi-micronutrient tablets might be considered.

Information NutriBib

Reference work for leading, current and selected literature in the field of clinical nutrition

Publications on clinical nutrition have grown steadily in recent years and the scientific evidence has been improved by numerous observational as well as intervention studies. Various umbrella organisations, such as the Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (GESKES), the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) or the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) publish guidelines on nutrition in various clinical situations at regular intervals. Thus, a large amount of literature is available for evidence-based nutritional medicine.

The NutriBib aims to filter out authoritative publications in the various fields of nutritional medicine and thus to provide an overview of the abundance of literature. A large number of experienced nutrition experts contributed to the selection of relevant sources and allow a broadly based selection. Nevertheless, the literature selection cannot be considered exhaustive. Specific literature can be found by entering search words (using the magnifying glass at the top right) or by searching the table of contents.

Is important literature still missing? We would be very pleased to hear from you:

List of abbreviations

DGEM German Society for Nutritional Medicine (German Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährungsmedizin)
GESKES  Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (German Gesellschaft für klinische Ernährung der Schweiz) 
ESPEN European Society of Clinicl Nutrition and Metabolism