ESPEN Guidelines on Enteral Nutrition: Cardiology and Pulmonology

Clin Nutr. 2006 Apr; 25(2):311-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2006.01.017. Epub 2006 May 11.
Anker, S. D., John, M., Pedersen, P. U., Raguso, C., Cicoira, M., Dardai, E., Laviano, A., Ponikowski, P., Schols, A. M., DGEM (German Society for Nutritional Medicine), Becker, H. F., Böhm, M., Brunkhorst, F. M., Vogelmeier, C., & ESPEN (European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition)


These guidelines are intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They were developed by an interdisciplinary expert group in accordance with officially accepted standards and are based on all relevant publications since 1985. They have been discussed and accepted in a consensus conference. EN by means of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) or tube feeding (TF) enables nutritional intake to be maintained or increased when normal oral intake is inadequate. No data are yet available concerning the effects of EN on cachexia in CHF patients. However, EN is recommended to stop or reverse weight loss on the basis of physiological plausibility. In COPD patients, EN in combination with exercise and anabolic pharmacotherapy has the potential to improve nutritional status and function. Frequent small amounts of ONS are preferred in order to avoid postprandial dyspnoea and satiety as well as to improve compliance.

Information NutriBib

Reference work for leading, current and selected literature in the field of clinical nutrition

Publications on clinical nutrition have grown steadily in recent years and the scientific evidence has been improved by numerous observational as well as intervention studies. Various umbrella organisations, such as the Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (GESKES), the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) or the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) publish guidelines on nutrition in various clinical situations at regular intervals. Thus, a large amount of literature is available for evidence-based nutritional medicine.

The NutriBib aims to filter out authoritative publications in the various fields of nutritional medicine and thus to provide an overview of the abundance of literature. A large number of experienced nutrition experts contributed to the selection of relevant sources and allow a broadly based selection. Nevertheless, the literature selection cannot be considered exhaustive. Specific literature can be found by entering search words (using the magnifying glass at the top right) or by searching the table of contents.

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List of abbreviations

DGEM German Society for Nutritional Medicine (German Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährungsmedizin)
GESKES  Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (German Gesellschaft für klinische Ernährung der Schweiz) 
ESPEN European Society of Clinicl Nutrition and Metabolism