Context: Obesity is a chronic disease that is difficult to manage without holistic therapy. The therapeutic armamentarium for obesity primarily consists of 4 forms of therapy: lifestyle modification (ie, diet and exercise), cognitive behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery.
Evidence acquisition: Evidence was consolidated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses.
Evidence synthesis: After 2 years, lifestyle interventions can facilitate weight loss that equates to ~5%. Even though lifestyle interventions are plagued by weight regain, they can have substantial effects on type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Although 10-year percentage excess weight loss can surpass 50% after bariatric surgery, weight regain is likely. To mitigate weight regain, instituting a multifactorial maintenance program is imperative. Such a program can integrate diet, exercise, and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, behavioral therapy can complement a maintenance program well.
Conclusions: Obesity is best managed by a multidisciplinary clinical team that integrates diet, exercise, and pharmacotherapy. Bariatric surgery is needed to manage type 2 diabetes and obesity in select patients.