Long-Term Weight Loss Strategies for Obesity

Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2021 Jun 16; 106(7):1854-1866. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab091.
Kheniser, K., Saxon, D. R., & Kashyap, S. R.


Context: Obesity is a chronic disease that is difficult to manage without holistic therapy. The therapeutic armamentarium for obesity primarily consists of 4 forms of therapy: lifestyle modification (ie, diet and exercise), cognitive behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery.

Evidence acquisition: Evidence was consolidated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses.

Evidence synthesis: After 2 years, lifestyle interventions can facilitate weight loss that equates to ~5%. Even though lifestyle interventions are plagued by weight regain, they can have substantial effects on type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Although 10-year percentage excess weight loss can surpass 50% after bariatric surgery, weight regain is likely. To mitigate weight regain, instituting a multifactorial maintenance program is imperative. Such a program can integrate diet, exercise, and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, behavioral therapy can complement a maintenance program well.

Conclusions: Obesity is best managed by a multidisciplinary clinical team that integrates diet, exercise, and pharmacotherapy. Bariatric surgery is needed to manage type 2 diabetes and obesity in select patients.

Information NutriBib

Reference work for leading, current and selected literature in the field of clinical nutrition

Publications on clinical nutrition have grown steadily in recent years and the scientific evidence has been improved by numerous observational as well as intervention studies. Various umbrella organisations, such as the Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (GESKES), the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) or the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) publish guidelines on nutrition in various clinical situations at regular intervals. Thus, a large amount of literature is available for evidence-based nutritional medicine.

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List of abbreviations

DGEM German Society for Nutritional Medicine (German Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährungsmedizin)
GESKES  Swiss Society for Clinical Nutrition (German Gesellschaft für klinische Ernährung der Schweiz) 
ESPEN European Society of Clinicl Nutrition and Metabolism